How do I measure return on investment (ROI) for my learning program?

During a recent interview, I was asked if I thought elearning would increase in organizations as a result of a troublesome economy and the events of September 11th. My answer was simply that elearning, for elearning’s sake, would not increase, but anything that could be done for less money and without additional travel — and that you can prove helps people learn — will increase and expand in coming months and years. For the past 20 years, there’s been a kind of ‘hope and a prayer’ attitude about learning. Companies would look at a program, see the possible value, and try it. They were willing to take chances. That trial and error era is over. Now, companies want to see results. Measuring value and return on investment for training and elearning dollars has always been important, but now organizations want to be assured that the training they’re spending money on actually works. ROI and EVA have never been more vital than they are now. You need to be able to prove the training is actually helping people learn.

The problem is that nobody is quite sure what the appropriate metrics are for measuring ROI for learning. Is it student throughput or time to mastery? Is it dropout rates or full-time equivalents returned to the workforce? One thing is certain: many smart people are completely befuddled by the topic. I’ve written this mini-primer as a way to help you get started examining the right metrics for your organization.

What is ROI?

Return on Investment (ROI) is a traditional financial measure based on historic data.
ROI is a backward-looking metric that yields no insights into how to improve business results in the future.
In education organizations, ROI has been used primarily for self-justification rather than continuous improvement.
To calculate monetary ROI, identify the total financial benefit your organization draws from a learning program and then subtract from that the total investment made to develop, produce, and deliver that program. Though it’s difficult to measure all of the costs associated with the program and even harder to isolate the financial benefits from the program, I find this exercise worth completing once in a while so that you can assess the types of statistics you are tracking and if they are the right ones to measure. [More regularly, you should examine what creates non-financial value.]

(total benefit – total costs) = ____ X 100 = ROI
total costs

Total benefits include money saved by the organization, money made, and anything that adds directly or indirectly to the bottom line.

Total costs include the obvious and the not-so-obvious: development costs, learner’s time away from doing something else, overhead of education department, physical materials, etc. (For instructor-led training this also includes program materials, meals/refreshments, facilities, cost of coordination, cost of job coverage during training, overhead of instructors, and any other cost incurred. Online courses include servers, graphics, web development or CD-production, etc.)

Where do you start?

Begin to gather the data your organization (and the finance department) already collects.
Collect in one place all that factors than can tell you how much program development costs. Don’t forget to include indirect fees.
Add up any money you gained from the program.
Questions you’ll need to ask during the process:

Are the metrics you collect meaningful for the organization?
What categories are you missing? Does another department collect the information you need?
How will you convert data that is not in a useful format for you?
What is your organization’s broad objectives? Are they broad enough? How do your programs’ objectives align with your organizational goals?
What should you isolate and when is it more important to look at an overall effect?
What are the “intangible factors” that contribute to your programs’ success and the growth of those who participate?
At a minimum you should consider tracking the following internal measures.

Enrollment. Are learners showing up?
Activity. Are people moving through the course?
Completion. Did starters finish?
Scores. How well did learners score?
Feedback and Surveys. How was the program received?
To get a thorough understanding of ROI, measurement, and training economics, I have compiled a long list of resources from my personal arsenal that I refer to whenever someone asks me a “How should I measure ROI for learning?” This list includes website and discussions dedicated to ROI in training and learning, countless articles and reports, books on ROI, ROI calculators and software, general ROI information that does not specifically examine training ROI but will help you learn more about the field of study, other types of measurements (including Economic Value Added/EVA, Balanced Scorecard, TOTEM, and 360 assessments), and finally, ways to look at non-financial returns. Also, see the cost of not training.

ROI-related Websites & Discussions
ROInet is a yahoo group for evaluating and measuring learning with over 750 members. It was created for HRD professionals interested in measuring return on investment in HR development, Organization Development, eLearning, EPSS, and Knowledge Management. ROInet also looks at skills and performance assessment and approaches to intellectual capital valuation.

The ASTD Evaluation and ROI Community is an online environment where you can find resources, discuss projects, and share experiences on issues related to measurement and investment. This is a space to connect with other professionals, ask questions, post comments, and get advice. It is on the ASTD website but does not require registration or membership. [Links to resources and the community itself are on the left side of the page.] ALSO see the Evaluation & ROI Discussion Board from ASTD. Also, ASTD provides a good ROI Bibliography.

American Evaluation Association is an organization devoted to the application and exploration of evaluation in all of its forms.

EPSS Central has a wonderful list of resources to calculate ROI.

Jay Cross’ Internet Time lists some terrific Metrics & ROI related materials and Jay’s own insightful brand of writing.

ROI Articles and Reports
Return on Investment in Training: Myths and Realities No. 16. By Bettina Lankard Brown. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, 2001. “For years, companies have been operating under the assumption that they are reaping positive benefits from their training efforts. They train workers because they believe it strengthens the organization and serves as a retention tool (Lachnit 2001). They accept training as a given expense, showing human capital investments as expenditures on their corporate balance sheets, not as assets that are expected to generate income. However, because intuition and casual estimates have formed the basis of many of their training investment decisions, many companies have little evidence to verify that they are realizing positive returns on these investments.” ALSO available in .pdf.

Do firms investments in education and training pay off? By Laurie Bassi and Dan McMurrer for ASTD and Saba. Unisys World, July 2001. “Yes, firms’ investments in education and training do pay off. And if you only knew what firms were investing in education and training, you could significantly improve the performance of your portfolio. For example, a portfolio of firms (across industries) selected because they invest an above-average amount on training would have returned an average of 45 percent more than the S&P 500 index annually in recent years. That’s right — 45 percent more.” ALSO see the Profiting from Learning Report.

A Fresh Look at ROI Training return-on-investment meets the information age. By Jay Cross. Learning Circuits, January 2001. “Ask me, I’ll tell you: Return-on-investment isn’t what it used to be. This traditional financial measure, developed by DuPont and once credited with making General Motors manageable, hasn’t kept pace with the times. The R is no longer the famous bottom line and the I is more likely a subscription fee than a one-time payment. Until recently, most training decisions were incremental. Training sponsors had most of the infrastructure required: an empty room, staff, flip charts, markers, perhaps some personal computers. Business unit managers could evaluate the cost-effectiveness of one-shot training courses by assessing cost and effect within their own business units. E-learning changes this, though.” This article points to an unwieldy truth about e-learning ROI and for training ROI in general; that different positions within an organization will have different potentially contradictory measures of ROI. Lays out perspectives of the training manager, the business unit manager, the corporate staff, and the executive team. A wonderfully provocative article.

Talking Human Capital with Professor Gary S. Becker, Nobel Laureate. By Brook Manville. Learning in the New Economy eMagazine (LiNE Zine), Spring 2001. Becker began the movement that first put the concept of human capital on the map as a subject worthy of economic discussion. And, how could you go wrong when you have a Nobel laureate saying things like, “The most successful companies and the most successful countries will be those that that manage human capital in the most effective and efficient fashion-investing in their workers, encouraging workers to invest in themselves, provide a good learning environment, and yes, include social capital as well as skills and training.” This material is great quote material for executive-level briefings. Becker also speaks to the idea of changing accounting principles to accurately reflect the value of human capital. ALSO see links to Gary S. Becker’s articles and Becker’s 1992 Nobel Laureate.

Human Capital Advantage: Developing Metrics for the Knowledge Era Laurie Bassi. Learning in the New Economy eMagazine (LiNE Zine), Spring 2001. Focuses on how accounting must change to deal with the reality of human capital.

E-learning? Show Me The Money! Samantha Chapnick. T+D, June 2001. [.pdf only available for ASTD members]. This is one of my very favorite articles and Sam is a terrific writer. If you can’t get it online, find a copy of the magazine (the old fashion way, from a colleague or a local university library) and read it! “Many of us have learned the hard way there are few claims as outlandish and unsubstantiated as that e-learning is a money saver. Lately, I’ve dared anyone to prove e-learning saved their company money, excluding off-the-shelf computer-skills applications. Some responses heatedly quoted the typical PR put out by the Fortune 100s; a few were I’m sure what we said is accurate, but I need to get back to you…” Visit the Research Dog website, too.

The E-Learning Factor: Companies are using metrics to justify e-learning’s impact on strategic business goal. By John Berry. InternetWeek, November 6, 2000. This well-written article moves from discussing Gartner Group’s report of the “four main reasons why companies opt for e-learning” (enterprise transformation, acquisitions, constant innovation, supply chain) to a discussion of what it takes to successfully implement e-learning beyond the metrics. ALSO see Sidebar: It’s All About The Data.

E-Learning Economics: Expanding our Understanding of the Traditional ROI [.pdf] By Margaret Rueda. HPT Corp. “No one can dispute that e-learning is here to stay. With U.S. businesses expected to spend up to $10 billion annually by the Year 2003 to incorporate online skills development and education into their training arsenal, its clear that this is not just a passing trend. Yet despite growing consensus that e-learning offers many benefits over traditional classroom education, many managers still question their return on investment. According to a recent study of companies that haven’t bought into e-learning, concern about cost and lack of management buy-in were the major reasons cited by those surveyed, at 44% and 43% respectively.”

Is Training Worth It? ROI Gives Answers. By Michael Millis. Credit Union National Association. “Training no longer can be justified with vague promises of “It will be good for our people.” In today’s cost-conscious environment, credit union training departments have to convince their chief executive officers and boards of directors that training expenditures will translate into real results. The decision-makers want and need to know: Will the gains brought by the training outweigh its costs–and by how much?” ALSO includes: How to calculate; ROI Costs, benefits, and limitations; Boosting your ROI.

Does Training Pay? Evidence from Australian Enterprises. [.pdf] By Blandy, Richard Blandy, Michael Dockery, Anne Hawke and Elizabeth Webster. Australian National Training Authority, 2000. Kensington Park, Australia. “Training expenditures are a unique form of business expense. Unlike other expenses, training costs represents an investment by the firm in their employees. As with any other investment, a commitment to training is directly related to the expected returns from each dollar invested. Assessing the value of these returns has been the subject of a large body of national and international research. Almost unanimously, studies have concluded that enterprises are interested in training as a means of securing improved workplace performance and greater profitability (OTFE 1998; Billett & Cooper 1998; Baker & Wooden 1995).” ALSO see Enterprise Return on a Training Investment and Returns to Companies on an Investment in Training.

Measuring the ROI of Training. By Ben Worthen. CIO Magazine, February 15, 2001. “No one would open a new office, roll out a new application or even hire a new employee without knowing—not thinking, not guessing, not wishing and hoping, but knowing—they were getting something back. To do otherwise would be bad business. But in the area of IT training, it happens all the time.”

Many Happy Returns: Calculating E-Learning ROI. By John L. Setaro. Learning Circuits, June 2001. “E-learning may be the wave that carries the future of corporate training. But if that wave is ever to crest, corporations must be able to determine a financial return on their investment. Only if early adopters can truly demonstrate an ROI in dollar figures will e-learning wash over corporate culture and change its landscape.”

ROI for E-Learning. By John V. Moran. Learning Circuits, February 2002. “I frequently talk to learning professionals who face the daunting task of determining e-learning’s ROI. The conversation almost always has an either/or tone, with such questions as “If I replace my traditional classroom training with Web courses, how much will I save?” As a strong advocate for e-learning, I find that logic flawed. People fail to recognize many non-cost related benefits of e-learning solutions, such as reach, consistent messaging, and flexibility.”

Assessing the ROI of training. By Clive Shepherd. FasTrack Consulting, in conjunction with the Institute of IT Training, provides the case for return on investment (ROI) as a primary tool for forecasting and evaluating the benefits of training. This articles also explains the steps involved in conducting an ROI analysis, includes a spreadsheet form, and a template to for you to calculate your training ROI. [More ROI Calculators]

Training Proves Its Worth. By Carroll Lachnit. Workforce, September 2001. “It’s the time of reckoning for training. Does it bring new customers? Does it reduce turnover? Does it contribute to the bottom line? If you can prove training’s real value, you can keep it from being cut.” Cites research from Hackett Benchmarking and Research that shows that companies that spends $218 per employee on training have more than a 16 percent voluntary turnover, while companies that spend over $273 per employee have turnover of 7 percent annually. Explains how to determine the return-on-investment of training. Offers a case study of Rockwell Collins and how it reinvested its training with e-learning programs.

What Are Employees Worth? By Eilene Zimmerman. Workforce, February 2001. Discusses various studies that attempt to quantify the value of human capital, including a study that found a correlation between training and corporate performance. Lists the Saratoga Groups 10 measures of human capital management. Explains how Skandia Group Worldwide Values its human capital. ALSO see Skandia Puts Employee Worth on Paper. Focusing on its nonfinancial assets, Skandia’s Intellectual Capital Supplement is now issued twice yearly. 10 Measures of Human Capital Management. It’s important to decide which of these apply to your company’s situation. Making Human Capital Measurements Add Up. Everyone wants to find a measurement system that works, but the emphasis should be on finding a sound logic to connect those measures to the business. What Your Employees Are Worth. Jac Fitz-enz explains how you can put a dollar amount to your employees’ value.

The Nuts & Bolts of Valuing Training. By Gillian Flynn. Workforce Magazine, November 1998. Free, but requires loginning in. HR 101: Calculating the ROI of training is sometimes simple, sometimes subjective and sometimes not worth the effort. “The return on investment (ROI) is a Holy Grail of sorts for the training industry. Everybody wants it, everybody has theories on how to find it, and most are willing to go to great lengths to do so.”

Learning Revives Training. By Shari Caudron. Workforce Magazine, January 2000. Trainers are finding they have to focus not on training, but on training’s results. One of the biggest challenges that organizations face is that while CEOs are sold on learning, they’re skeptical,” explains John W. Humphrey, chairman of The Forum Corporation, an international learning company based in Boston. “They’re not seeing a link between training and business performance.”

Measure What You Bring to the Bottom Line. By Linda Davidson. Workforce Magazine, September 1988. “Demonstrating the bottom-line impact of HR’s contributions may be a slippery task, but HR must learn the how to’s of ROI measurement in order to be recognized as a true business partner.”

A Fresh Look at ROI. By Jay Cross for Smartforce, 2000. The traditional conception of ROI is obsolete. The Internet has changed everything. Astute training managers employ business metrics, not Kirkpatricks famous four levels. Managers of business units value time more than ROI. Major decisions are based on descriptive business cases, not pro forma budgets. Senior executives are more interested in the top line (dramatic growth from new markets and inno-vation) than the bottom line (the accounting fiction of profits).

Money Watch. By Michael Rosenberg. e-Learning Magazine. Can e-learning preserve the training department? How companies can cut costs without their own throats. This is a good, short article, featuring three easy formulas that can help you start to do some rudimentary calculation of moving from a pure classroom situation to one that involves at least a blended training solution.

E-Learning Branches Out. By Sandra Swanson. E-learning systems may not be easy to implement, but many companies see the potential for a broad business impact. In this article, there is a wealth of information and much of it drawn from case studies that adds so much more impact to their usage. There is also a valuable series of charts included that are too graphically poor to just lift directly but could be reproduced. This is also one of those articles that just continually to more and more great articles–you could read for hours.

A Different Way to View the Return on Investment (ROI) in e-Learning. By John Moran. e-Learning Technologies. A concise recitation of not e-learning benefits but formed in a compare/contrast format with the typical cost/ROI metrics of a classroom situation. Adds “Training Efficiency” and “Speed” to the ROI calculus.

Wired for Profit. How do you convince your company to swallow the costs of e-learning during an era of corporate belt-tightening? Show them the profit. By Sarah Boehle. The article author discusses some cases in which an HR or training department developed an e-learning process, product or tool that they were able to sell outside their own company in order to generate the resources they needed to go forward.

Measure of Success. Online Learning Magazine, May 2001. “As organizations struggle to evaluate their return on e-learning, many are coming up with new ways of measuring results. Measuring return on investment (ROI) has always been the Achilles’ heel of training, as most organizations have neither the staff time nor the expertise to pull it off.” This article provides different ways of conducting ROI on e-learning including: time to competency, time to market, achieved competencies, and even return on expectation.

Step Right Up! Real Results for Real People! Computer-based, Multimedia Training can Make a Big Difference, IF it is Done Right. By Rex J. Allen. This is a good, academic-ish think piece. This would be a good pre-read piece for a meeting on ROI, but not the place to turn if you are looking for a quick read and some fast stats.

How E-Learning Can Increase ROI for Training. ThinQ. By John L. Setaro. One way to demonstrate the value of training in financial terms is to measure the return on investment (ROI) of your training programs. This article begins with an interesting distinction between cost savings and ROI. “Cost savings is a reduction in expense, while return on investment is the rate or percent of return on your investment.” This seems simple enough but it can but a different spin on the discussion. The article goes on to address the following claims made by supporters of e-learning: “(1) that e-learning saves time without decaying learning benefits;(2) that it minimizes travel costs; (3) that it minimizes time away from work; (4) that it is more cost effective; (5) that it can meet the needs of a geographically disperse employees; (6) that it provides consistent course delivery; (7) that it can offer more individualized instruction; and (8) that consistently higher learning results can be achieved over traditional training.” The article is also supported with numerous in-paper references and a bibliography.

Is It Worth The Cost? Calculating The ROI for Training. By John L. Setaro. September, 15, 2000. This piece addresses ROI in training. The author makes some cogent points that could be easily adapted into an e-learning discussion.

How NOT to implement an e-learning programme. By Patrick Lambe. Business-Times Asia. January 12, 2001. Companies are jumping on the online training bandwagon; the problem is, management may not have done its homework. If you are still in the preparatory stage of e-learning implementation, this is a good article for you. It could also help explain some things if you have implemented e-learning and you aren’t getting the ROI you expected. The article reminds us that implementing an e-learning program does not occurs in a vacuum. Numerous places and levels within an organization can derail or hamstring your efforts.

Measuring Training ROI and Impact. By Jennifer Stone and Virginia Watson. 1999. This article focuses on how to collect ROI data based on Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels. Blends Kirkpatrick’s work with a 1997 National HRD Executive Survey conducted by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD). ALSO includes an ROI formula.

Build a Business Case for Online Learning Projects. By Saul Carliner. Learning Circuits, February 2000. A great primer on putting together your case for e-learning. The section that outlines some of the costs that could be associated with an e-learning program development.

Return-on-Investment (ROI) from e-Learning, CBT and WBT. By Ron Kurtus. School for Champions, January 2001. Sort of a workbook-like walk through of some basic e-learning ROI formulas. Handy for getting a grip on the mathematics of ROI. ALSO see Determining Training Return-on-Investment (ROI).

Enhancing the Bottom Line: Manpower Training and the Return on Investment (ROI). By Oliver Tian. The CEO Refresher.

Calculating Return On Investment in Human Performance Interventions. By Harold D. Stolovitch and Jean-Gabriel Maurice. Creativity at Work. This paper contains a brief description of a seven step process for calculating the ROI for human performance interventions.

Learning for Results. By Kirk Hallowell and Ted Perzanowski. This paper describes a performance analysis and evaluation model that integrates the speed and client-focus of performance consulting with the structure and rigor of ROI analysis.

Show Me the Return. By Wendy Webb. Inside Technology Training, November 1999. “Although Web-based training (WBT) demands more upfront ROI data than other training delivery methods, it doesn’t lend itself easily to the traditional ROI science. More variables come into play. The most common challenge of measuring the ROI of WBT is isolating the effects of the WBT from other variables, like other initiatives implemented at the same time.” This article doesn’t provide show you how to make the detail calculation, but does provide advise on what information to use in the calculation.

How Much Is the Training Worth?. By Jack Phillips. Training & Development, April 1996. Shows how to convert program results to monetary benefits that bosses can understand. It’s easier than you think. “Many HR practitioners consider a training evaluation complete when they can link business results to the program. But for the ultimate level of evaluation return-on-investment, the process isn’t complete until the results have been converted to monetary values and compared with the cost of the program. This shows the true contribution of training.” The article provides advise on how to do this.

The Fallacy of ROI Calculations. By Daniel R. Tobin. If you want your training to group to be valued by organizational leaders, you must start and end all of your efforts by focusing on the organization’s goals. I have devised an instrument that I call a “learning contract” to guide you through this process. The learning contract can be used at the level of the individual employee, but my focus here is on how to use it to guide the training group’s efforts as a whole.

Calculating the Return On Your eLearning Investment. By Docent. “The key to producing a credible ROI is ascertaining the hard cost and revenue impact. This paper provides specific assistance on how to recognize and quantify these benefits. It also helps identify the less tangible soft competitive benefits and values to individual learners that are important in developing a complete picture of the total return on a proposed eLearning solution investment.”

If You Need a Million Bucks…You Gotta Know Your ROI. By Brandon Hall. This short article published in 1997 shows an example of the calculation of the ROI for a CBT training system.

Was It The Training? By Jack Phillips. Training & Development, March 1996. Describes 10 ways to isolate the effects of training so that it is credited over other variables as the reason for performance improvement.

Less Than a Penny for Learning By Stanley Malcolm, Ph.D., Performance Vision. January 3, 2002. This piece describes three nested eighty-twenty rules which may be summarized as follows: little of what we spend on training goes to design; little of what we do spend on design is effective or relevant to job performance; and, even that ignores the vast majority of critical job learning that happens out of our usual sight – unstructured, inconsistently, on the job.

The ROI of CBT. Rex Allen. CD-ROM Professional magazine. The best article ever written on measuring ROI. While I can’t find this article online anymore, here is a summary posted on another website.

Measuring the Goodness of Training. By Jack Gordon. Training Magazine, August 1991. A good summary of measuring training results. With proper needs analysis up front, evaluating results will take care of itself. [This article does not seem to be available online. You’ll need to find at a library or on a collegue’s book shelf.]

Yes, You Can Weigh Training’s Value. By Jac Fitz-Enz. Training Magazine, July 1994. A cogent and practical summary of measuring training ROI. [You will need to find this article offline.]

Books relating to ROI and Evaluation
The Bottom Line on ROI: Basics, Benefits, & Barriers to Measuring Training & Performance Improvement. By Patricia P. Phillips and Jack J. Phillips. “Most organizations spend less than 1% of their training budgets on measurement and evaluation, and this figure only covers post-program analysis. Yet to truly maximize the benefits of ROI, training and performance improvement programs should be measured throughout the planning and development process. But before jumping on the ROI bandwagon, you should first determine whether your organization is a candidate for ROI and also how to overcome the various barriers to ROI implementation.”

Return on Investment in Training and Performance Improvement Programs by Jack J. Phillips. (Gulf Publishing, 1997). This classic, provides a comprehensive treatment for ROI in training. Contains 10 post-program data collection methods, and 10 techniques for converting both hard and soft data to monetary values. Includes worksheets and case studies.

Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods (Improving Human Performance Series) By Jack J. Phillips (Editor).

Running Training Like a Business. By David van Adelsberg and Edward Al Trolley. (Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1999). The how-to book on managing enterprise training. Describes a tried and tested model showing how training organizations can do more with less and deliver more tangible business value for each training dollar. This book shows how training organizations can revamp and develop new standards for measuring performance. Examples from DuPont, Oracle, and more.

The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy, and Performance. By Brian E. Becker.

The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring the Economic Value of Employee Performance. By Jac Fitz-Enz. (Amacom, 2000). Read a review from the SAS Magazine. The ROI of Human Capital draws on years of quantitative and qualitative international research by the prestigious Saratoga Institute to provide a breakthrough methodology for measuring the bottom-line effect of employee performance. Its author, Institute founder Jac Fitz-enz, virtually invented human performance benchmarking — a concept that demands to be understood as businesses face a long-range shortage of qualified workers at all levels.

Level 5 Evaluation: Mastering ROI. By Jack Phillips, Patricia F. Pulliam. ASTD Info-Line 9805. Outlines the ways HR practitioners (1) can demonstrate how training affects the organization’s bottom line, (2) can explain the linkage between HR and business strategies, and (3) can illustrate a level of accountability for the HR department. Describes methods of collecting data, isolating the effects of training, and the barriers and benefits to ROI. Job aid includes a data collection plan and an ROI analysis plan. Barriers to ROI Evaluation. Although progress has been made in the implementation of ROI, Significant barriers inhibit the implementation of the concept. Some of these barriers are realistic; others are actually myths based on false perceptions. ROI Analysis Plan. Use this table as a guide for performing your own ROI calculation.

Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. Thomas Gilbert’s classic. Provides a look at people that is based on empirical observations and the occurrence of functional relationships between our work behavior and that of others. It also takes into consideration the ecological variable effecting the execution of a business model and operations. He argues that competency is not a measure of knowledge, hard work or dedication, it is a measure of worthy performance. Results that facilitate the acquisition of leisure or opportunity to pursue more meaningful or worthwhile activities are the best measure of competency. This book will help any person at work who wants to succeed. It provides a perspective that will allow that person to improve their own an others performance at work. It will help any open minded person demonstrate their own competency.

Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organization…